An ethical issue is a problem or a situation that requires a person or an organization to choose between two alternatives that must be evaluated as ethical or unethical. To prevent ethical issues in a psychological testing, certain rules and guidelines have been laid down by psychological organizations.
Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: Sittlichkeit Ethics also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural valuescodes of conduct or social mores from a society that provides these codes of conduct in which it applies and is accepted by an individual.
It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that which is considered right or wrong. Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense.
Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense. Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. This may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalistshowever not all moral realists accept that position e.
Instead, they hold that moral sentences are either categorically false claims of objective moral facts error theory ; claims about subjective attitudes rather than objective facts ethical subjectivism ; or else not attempts to describe the world at all but rather something else, like an expression of an emotion or the issuance of a command non-cognitivism.
Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism. For example, universal prescriptivism is a universalist form of non-cognitivism which claims that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives, and divine command theory and ideal observer theory are universalist forms of ethical subjectivism which claim that morality is derived from the edicts of a god or the hypothetical decrees of a perfectly rational being, respectively.
Anthropology[ edit ] Tribal and territorial[ edit ] Celia Green made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another.
By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual. Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status. In-group and out-group[ edit ] Main article: Ingroups and outgroups Some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an " in-group " the individual and those they believe to be of the same group or an "out-group" people not entitled to be treated according to the same rules.
This belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. Jonathan Haidt has noted  that experimental observation indicating an in-group criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservativesbut far less so by liberals. Comparing cultures[ edit ] Peterson and Seligman  approach the anthropological view looking across cultures, geo-cultural areas and across millennia.
They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined. Each of these includes several divisions. For instance humanity includes lovekindnessand social intelligence.
Fons Trompenaarsauthor of Did the Pedestrian Die? One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian.
Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations, from none to definite. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external linksand by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message John Newton, author of Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century  compared the Eastern and the Western cultures about morality. As stated in Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, "One of the important objectives of this book is to blend harmoniously the fine souls regarding conduct in the Eastern and the Western cultures, to take the result as the source and then to create newer and better conduct principles to suit the human society of the new century, and to introduce a lot of Chinese fine conduct spirits to the Western world.
It is hoped that this helps solve lots of problems the human society of the 21st century faces, including but not limited to the Eastern and the Western cultures what a single culture cannot. Some evolutionary biologistsparticularly sociobiologistsbelieve that morality is a product of evolutionary forces acting at an individual level and also at the group level through group selection although to what degree this actually occurs is a controversial topic in evolutionary theory.
Some sociobiologists contend that the set of behaviors that constitute morality evolved largely because they provided possible survival or reproductive benefits i.
Humans consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors. On this understanding, moralities are sets of self-perpetuating and biologically-driven behaviors which encourage human cooperation.
Biologists contend that all social animals, from ants to elephants, have modified their behaviors, by restraining immediate selfishness in order to improve their evolutionary fitness.
The phenomenon of reciprocity in nature is seen by evolutionary biologists as one way to begin to understand human morality.Dental Ethics is an ever-growing collection of resources and materials related to dental ethics, a type of ethics resource clearinghouse. The purpose of Dental Ethics is to heighten ethical and professional responsibility, promote ethical conduct and professionalism in dentistry, advance dialogue on ethical issues, and stimulate reflection on common ethical problems in dental practice.
With its first prototype nearing completion, the ETHYKA module has been designed to programme ethics into robots that operate using artificial intelligence — this will be the first attempt in. The British moral philosophers were sociologists as much as philosophers; concerned with man in relation to society, they looked to the social virtues for the basis of a healthy and human society.
The French had a more exalted mission: to make reason the governing principle of society as well as mind, to "rationalize, "as is were, the world. Values are rules. Morals are how we judge others.
Ethics are professional standards. Signs of the boom are everywhere. Over business-ethics courses are currently taught on American campuses; fully 90 % of the nation’s business schools now provide some kind of training in the.
In other words, that this is a moral universe, and that there are moral laws of the universe just as abiding as the physical laws. (from "Rediscovering Lost Values")” ― Martin Luther King Jr.