Intentional torts[ edit ] Intentional tort — category of torts that describes a civil wrong resulting from an intentional act on the part of the tortfeasor alleged wrongdoer.
Occupational safety and healthHealth and Safety at Work etc.
ActUK labour lawInsurance in the United Kingdomand National Health Service One of the principal terms that accompanies the employment relationship is that the employer will provide a "safe system of work". As the industrial revolution developed, accidents from a hazardous working environment were a front line target for labour legislation, as a series of Factories Actsfromrequired minimum standards in workplace cleanliness, ventilation, fencing machinery, not to mention restrictions on child labour and limits to the working day.
These Acts typically targeted particular kinds of workplaces, such as mines, or textile mills, before the more generalised approach took hold now seen in the Factories Act That applies to any workplace where an article is made or changed, or animals are kept and slaughtered.
Because isolated employees lack the technical skill, time, training to litigate, such regulation's primary line of enforcement was through inspectors or agencies before matters went to court. Today the Health and Safety at Work etc. Actenforced by the Health and Safety Executiveis the main law.
The HSE can delegate enforcement to local authorities, whose inspectors have the power to investigate and require changes to workplace systems.
In addition, HSWA section 2 foresees that employees will set up their own workplace committees, elected by the employees and with the power to codetermine health and safety matters with management.
Spelling out the general duties found in HSWAare a set of health and safety regulationswhich must also stay in line with the European-wide harmonised requirements of the Health and Safety Directive.
While the modern scheme of legislation and regulation engenders a comprehensive approach to enforcement and worker participation for health and safety matters, the common law remains relevant for getting civil law compensation, and some limits on an employers' duties.
Although the legislative provisions are not automatic, breach of a statutory duty is evidence that a civil law duty has been breached.
Injured employees can generally claim for loss of income, and relatives or dependents recover small sums to reflect distress. First, untilif an employee was injured by a co-worker, the doctrine of common employmentthe employer could only be liable if it was shown they were personally liable by carelessness in selecting staff.
Lord Wright held there were "fundamental obligations of a contract of employment The second old restriction was that, untilvolenti non fit injuria meant workers were assumed to voluntarily accept the dangers of their work by agreeing to their contracts of employment. Third, even if a worker was slightly at fault, until such contributory negligence precluded the whole of the claim.
Now the court will only reduce damages by the amount the employee contributed to their own injury. In Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte Ltd  Mr Hewison concealed his epilepsy so that he could work offshore was technically guilty of illegally attempting to gain a pecuniary advantage by deception under the Theft Act section After being struck in the head by a defective gangplank he suffered worse fits than before, but the Court of Appeal, by a majority, held his illegal act precluded any compensation.
The common law of tort also remains particularly relevant for the type of liability an employer has where there is scientific uncertainty about the cause of an injury. In asbestos disease cases, a worker may have been employed with at a number of jobs where he was exposed to asbestos, but his injury cannot with certainty be traced to any one.
Although he may be able to sue all of them, a number may have already gone insolvent. In Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd  the House of Lords held that if any employer had materially increased the risk of harm to the worker, they could would be jointly and severally liable and could be sued for the full sum, leaving it up to them to seek contribution from others and thus the risk of other businesses' insolvency.
For a brief period, in Barker v Corus  the House of Lords then decided that employers would only be liable on a proportionate basisthus throwing the risk of employers' insolvency back onto workers.
Immediately Parliament passed the Compensation Act section 3 to reverse the decision on its facts.State Sovereign Immunity And Tort Liability In All 50 States - Learn about remedies available to victims of government torts and their subrogated carriers. Tort law refers to the set of laws that provides remedies to individuals who have suffered harm by the unreasonable acts of another.
Tort law is based on the idea that people are liable for the consequences of their actions, whether intentional or accidental, if they cause harm to another person or entity.
State Sovereign Immunity and Tort Liability. For most of American history, sovereign immunity almost universally protected federal and state governments and . What Is Tort Law Liability? A tort is a legal term describing a violation where one person causes damage, injury, or harm to another person.
The violation may result from intentional actions, a breach of duty as in negligence, or due to a violation of statutes. Types Of Remedies Of Tort Liability. injuries or wrongful acts are called tort. Tort is the area of law where in response to a private or civil wrong or injury the courts provide the remedy of allowing a lawsuit for those wrongs, injuries or damages.
Thus, the goal of tort is to restore the victim to business or individual’s former condition. The individual who commits the tortious act (the act leading to the tort liability claim) is called the “tortfeasor,” and is the defendant in this type of civil lawsuit.
A victim of a tort may have several possible remedies available under tort laws. There are three basic types of remedies in tort law: Legal Remedies (“damages”), Restitutionary Remedies, and . There are four elements to tort law: duty, breach of duty, causation, and injury. In order to claim damages, there must be a breach in the duty of the defendant towards the plaintiff, which results in an injury. The three main types of torts are negligence, strict liability (product liability), and intentional torts. Remedies Lecture Once a case has been made by a claimant and the defendant’s case defeated, the court will decide on an appropriate remedy to apply to the problem at hand.
Such a defendant is generally held liable for damages or harm suffered by the plaintiff, as a result of the defendant’s acts.