Part 1 -- Medieval European history Before beginning to analyze technology that developed during the Middle Ages, it is helpful to understand the time period. Therefore, we will start this section with a series of web tutorials on the history of the Middle Ages. This web site is designed to assist those students who do not have a background in medieval European history.
Timeline of prehistoric Scotland Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period.
It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12, years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
A Neolithic settlement, located on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney.
The groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9, years ago, and the first villages around 6, years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period.
Neolithic habitation, burial, and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isleswhere a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. It contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark.
It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves. When the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland were a series of brief interludes.
According to the Roman historian Tacitusthe Caledonians "turned to armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and skirmishing with their legions. Tacitus wrote that, before the battle, the Caledonian leader, Calgacusgave a rousing speech in which he called his people the "last of the free" and accused the Romans of "making the world a desert and calling it peace" freely translated.
Three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands. However, some archaeologists have argued against this view, saying there is no archaeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites.
The development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed by Peter Heatherwas a natural response to Roman imperialism. By the 12th century, the kings of Alba had added to their territories the English -speaking land in the south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic -speaking Galloway and Norse -speaking Caithness ; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom had assumed approximately its modern borders.
However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured Scotland looked very different in the later Middle Ages. The push for this change was the reign of David I and the Davidian Revolution.
Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally recognised towns called burghs began in this period.
Edward I of England was asked to arbitrate between claimants for the Scottish crown, and he organised a process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate claimant. Instead, the Scottish parliament sent envoys to France to negotiate an alliance.
Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 Octoberknown as the Auld Alliance — War ensued and King John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland.Location of Scotland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the United Kingdom (green).
Compiled by Prof. Wesley Edward Arnold MA. With thanks to the help of many folks to told me their memories.
References and credits are being added. Part 1 -- Medieval European history Before beginning to analyze technology that developed during the Middle Ages, it is helpful to understand the time period.
Therefore, we will start this section with a series of web tutorials on the history of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages cover about 1, years--from about AD to about AD The change from ancient ways to medieval customs came so gradually, however, that it is difficult to tell exactly when the Middle Ages began.
The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine, plague, and war, which significantly diminished the population of Europe; between and , the Black Death killed about a third of Europeans. According to the Bible, God killed or authorized the killings of up to 25 million people.
This is the God of which Jesus was an integral part.