About the Journal Steroid hormone receptors They are intracellular receptors found in nucleus or cytosol. Steroid hormones exert variety of effects on growth, development and behavioral functions. These hormones binding to specific intracellular receptor proteins that function as both signal transducers and transcription factors to modulate expression of target genes.
As the prevalence of genetically modified organisms GMOs continues to rise, there has been an increasing public interest for information concerning the safety of these products.
Concerns generally focus on how the GMO may affect the environment or how it may affect the consumer. One specific concern is the possibility for GMOs to negatively affect human health.
This could result from differences in nutritional content, allergic response, or undesired side effects such as toxicity, organ damage, or gene transfer.
To address these concerns, there have been over research studies comparing the effects of traditional food to genetically modified food, the results of which have been reviewed in various journals , .
How these results affect regulation can be found through The Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, which hosts a GM Crop Database that can be searched by the public to find GMO crop history, style of modification, and regulation across the world .
Though knowing who to trust and what to believe regarding this topic is an ongoing battle, major health groups, including the American Medical Association and World Health Organization, have concluded from the research of independent groups worldwide that genetically modified foods are safe for consumers .
Regarding toxicity, this includes any dangers related to organ health, mutations, pregnancy and offspring, and potential for transfer of genes to the consumer.
One example is an anti-GMO advocacy group called the Institute for Responsible Technology IRTwhich reported that rats fed a diet containing a GMO potato had virtually every organ system adversely affected after just ten days of feeding . The IRT stated that the toxicity was the result of genetic modification techniques and not a specific case for that particular potato.
Scientists across the U. To this end, many different types of modifications in various crops have been tested, and the studies have found no evidence that GMOs cause organ toxicity or other adverse health effects.
An example of this research is a study carried out on a type of GMO potato that was genetically modified to contain the bar gene. The product of the bar gene is an enzyme that can detoxify herbicides and thus protects the potato from herbicidal treatment.
For each diet, they tracked male and female rats. Histopathology is the examination of organs for disease at the microscopic level think pathologist doing a biopsy. Histopathological examinations of the reproductive organs, liver, kidneys, and spleen showed no differences between GMO-eating and non-GMO-eating animals.
These researchers had split rats into four diet groups: They fed the rats over 7, times the average human daily consumption of either GMO or non-GMO tomato or sweet pepper for 30 days and monitored their overall health.
Finally, they carried out histopathology and again found no differences in the stomach, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, or reproductive organs of GMO versus non-GMO fed rats.
Despite massive ingestion of GMO potato, tomato, or sweet pepper, these studies demonstrated no differences in the vitality or health of the animals, even at the microscopic level. Experiments like these on humans would be completely unethical.
Fortunately, prior to these studies years of work have demonstrated that rodents, like mice and rats, are acceptable models for humans, meaning rodent responses to drugs, chemicals, and foods can predict human response. Rat feeding studies like these, in which rats are fed a potential toxic item and monitored for adverse effects, are considered both specific and sensitive for monitoring toxicity of foods and widely used in the food regulation industry .
The test of time: GMOs and their effect on our offspring Although scientists have been able to demonstrate that GMOs are not toxic to the animals that eat them, as described above and elsewhere, what about side effects being passed on to our next generations?
To discern whether GMO crops affect fertility or embryos during gestation, a group from South Dakota State University again turned to studies on rats. In this case, the rats were eating a type of GMO corn, more commonly known as Bt corn. Bt stands for Bacillus thuringiensis, a microbe that produces insecticidal endotoxin and has been used as a topical pesticide against insects since see this article.
To allow corn to directly generate this endotoxin, scientists introduced a gene from Bt into the genetic material DNA of corn. To address buildup of toxicity over time, this group monitored the GMO-eating rats not only for the lifetime of one generation, but also three additional generations.
For each generation, they tracked the fertility of parents and compared the health of the embryos from parents that ate Bt corn to those with parents that did not . Toxic effects can arise in many places and in many ways, but some organs are more susceptible to damage than others, and monitoring them is a good readout for other difficult-to-see effects.
Testes are considered a particularly sensitive organ for toxicity tests because of the high degree of cell divisions and thus high susceptibility to cellular or molecular toxins.
To examine the affect of Bt corn on testicular health, the researchers tracked testicular development in fetal, postnatal, pubertal, and adult rats for all four generations.Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
They are anabolic and increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of androgenic and. Cortisol and Weight. by Tiffany Spudich, PharmD January brought to you by Bellevue Pharmacy, a ProjectAWARE sponsor.
Does stress affect eating, weight, and where fat is distributed on the body? Which hormones fluctuate throughout the month during my cycle – estrogen and progesterone, or just estrogen?
The menstrual cycle proceeds through a complicated and highly coordinated dance of hormones. By convention the cycle begins with menstruation.
Steroids Some Medical Background. Before examining in detail the various claims made about medical effects and side effects of steroids, it would be wise to understand what a steroid ashio-midori.comations are available on line in many places, a representative one being the Wikipedia article Anabolic steroid (which, incidentally, "has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the.
This research study is studying the combination of a drug called atezolizumab and a radiation procedure called stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a possible treatment for triple-negative breast cancer that has spread to the brain.
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.
The phrase body image was first coined by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder in his book The Image and Appearance of the Human Body ().
Human society has at all times placed great value on beauty of the human body, but a person's perception of their own body may not.