Instead of considering them as equal, many scholars refer to them as features that are likely to be related in different ways.
Such entities exist increasingly in an interdependent world, and are relying on Action Research as a means of coming to grips with their constantly changing and turbulent environments. The evolution of the approach will be described, including the various kinds of action research being used today.
The role of the action researcher will be briefly mentioned, and some ethical considerations discussed. The tools of the action researcher, particularly that of the use of search conferences, will be explained. Finally three case studies will be briefly described, two of which pertain to action research projects involving information technology, a promising area needing further research.
Definition Action research is known by many other names, including participatory research, collaborative inquiry, emancipatory research, action learning, and contextural action research, but all are variations on a theme.
While this is the essence of the approach, there are other key attributes of action research that differentiate it from common problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day. A more succinct definition is, "Action research Thus, there is a dual commitment in action research to study a system and concurrently to collaborate with members of the system in changing it in what is together regarded as a desirable direction.
Accomplishing this twin goal requires the active collaboration of researcher and client, and thus it stresses the importance of co-learning as a primary aspect of the research process.
Several attributes separate action research from other types of research. Primary is its focus on turning the people involved into researchers, too - people learn best, and more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves.
It also has a social dimension - the research takes place in real-world situations, and aims to solve real problems. Finally, the initiating researcher, unlike in other disciplines, makes no attempt to remain objective, but openly acknowledges their bias to the other participants.
Stephen Kemmis has developed a simple model of the cyclical nature of the typical action research process Figure 1.
Each cycle has four steps: He distinguishes five phases to be conducted within each research cycle Figure 2. Initially, a problem is identified and data is collected for a more detailed diagnosis.
This is followed by a collective postulation of several possible solutions, from which a single plan of action emerges and is implemented. Data on the results of the intervention are collected and analyzed, and the findings are interpreted in light of how successful the action has been.
At this point, the problem is re-assessed and the process begins another cycle. This process continues until the problem is resolved. Figure 2 Detailed Action Research Model adapted from Susman What gives action research its unique flavour is the set of principles that guide the research.
Winter provides a comprehensive overview of six key principles. Truth in a social setting, however, is relative to the teller. The principle of reflective critique ensures people reflect on issues and processes and make explicit the interpretations, biases, assumptions and concerns upon which judgments are made.
In this way, practical accounts can give rise to theoretical considerations. Phenomena are conceptualized in dialogue, therefore a dialectical critique is required to understand the set of relationships both between the phenomenon and its context, and between the elements constituting the phenomenon.
The key elements to focus attention on are those constituent elements that are unstable, or in opposition to one another. These are the ones that are most likely to create changes. It strives to avoid the skewing of credibility stemming from the prior status of an idea-holder.
It especially makes possible the insights gleaned from noting the contradictions both between many viewpoints and within a single viewpoint 4 Risk The change process potentially threatens all previously established ways of doing things, thus creating psychic fears among the practitioners.
This plural structure of inquiry requires a plural text for reporting. This means that there will be many accounts made explicit, with commentaries on their contradictions, and a range of options for action presented.
A report, therefore, acts as a support for ongoing discussion among collaborators, rather than a final conclusion of fact. The two are intertwined aspects of a single change process. It is up to the researchers to make explicit the theoretical justifications for the actions, and to question the bases of those justifications.Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)". The term governance can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the.
In case study research, data collection and data analysis tend to proceed at the same time; ‘analysis’ writes Stake ( Stake, R.
E. The Art of Case Study Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Get this from a library! The art of case study research. [Robert E Stake]. The Art of Case Study Research by Stake, - The Art of Case Study Research by Robert E Stake.
You Searched For: Calif. |London, paperback. Condition: New. Seller Inventory # More information about this seller | Contact this seller A case study is a common framework for conducting qualitative research (Stake, ). A case study is depicted as a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded context (Miles &Huberman ).
The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience.