Visit Website But between and a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. These developments included the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Renaissance, the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power, the emergence of new technology in navigation and shipbuilding, and the establishment of overland trade with the East and the accompanying transformation of the medieval economy.
Painting, Clovis People hunting a woolly mammoth.
Courtesy of the Daily Mail. Stone Arrowheads used by the Clovis people. Courtesy of Michael Waters and Archaeology Magazine. Courtesy of the National Park Service. Artist George Strickland's depiction of a late Pleistocene Texas landscape.
Courtesy of the Witte Museum of San Antonio. Human exploration of the future Texas began during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels exposed a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska and Homo sapiens sapiens migrated into what is now North America.
The first explorers and perhaps colonizers possibly reached the continent during a convenient interglacial period, perhaps some 24, or more years ago. Other theories of Pre-Columbian exploration suggest that mariners from China, Africa, and the Mediterranean may have reached the New World by following favorable ocean currents.
Numerous legends support the idea of transoceanic contacts, but the material evidence remains inconclusive. An unmistakable presence of bone and stone evidence points to human exploratory and colonizing activity in Texas after 11, B. These points tell us of remarkable hunters and gatherers-men, women, and children whose daily existence was often tied to challenging exploration and later adaptation to a changing climate.
For the Clovis and their probable Folsom and Plainview descendants, Pleistocene Texas was an extraordinary environment: Though never numerous, perhaps a thousand or so on the great Llano mesa, the Clovis people explored Texas vigorously from a network of base camps, overlooks, kill sites, quarries, and hunting camps.
Although the Paleo-Indians were likely more sedentary and vegetarian than the mammoth hunters of popular imagination, they ranged through and beyond the present state, widely exploited favored environmental niches at the end of the last Ice Age, and diffused flint from distant sources like the renowned Alibates Flint Quarriesthe "Paleolithic Pittsburgh" along the Canadian River outcroppings.
From the Clovis people forward the confederacy of peoples and ecosystems now called Texas has experienced most of the possible American discovery process. For 11, years or so each arriving human culture-Clovis, Pandale, Pedernales, Perdiz, Tonkawa, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Spanish, French, English, Scots, Irish, African, and many others-has engaged in a spatial-environmental learning process of continual exploration and reexploration in Texas.
The process was certainly vital to Archaic and Pre-Contact hunting and gathering peoples. Hunting, trading, climatic shifts, limited agriculture, transhumance, and sheer curiosity led to Archaic Stage exploration of the region that merged so conveniently the coast and mountain, plain and swamp.
But even modern Texans must learn to explore and master a complicated world of satellite-city urbanization, internodal transportation, and ranching and agricultural enterprises.
An important change in exploration over the past eleven millennia has been the means and ends of the ancient search. The Clovis Texans walked, hunted game trails, and used ordinary eyesight to open the secrets of a new continent; Texans at the Lyndon B.
Johnson Space Center in Houston or the University of Texas McDonald Observatory travel by other means and use advanced technology to open the secrets of the universe. European discovery and early exploration. Because of its size and strategic location, Europeans encountered Texas early in their exploration of the New World.
After the historical conquest, subjugation, and depopulation of the Greater Antilles, the Spanish turned their attention westward, where a new continent awaited. The discoveries of Florida and Mexico left a large gap between these two realms.
Perhaps, they thought, this terra incognita also held the fabled Strait of Anian, the reputed open waterway in the New World that led straight to Asia. He sailed to Florida, explored the western coast, and cast serious doubt on the theory that Florida was an island.
The ships then turned and navigated along the mainland Gulf Coast from east to west, sailing into the sunset for weeks. His journals and other records are lost, but a pilot's chart from the expedition, now in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain, provided a remarkable outline of the Gulf Coast, including the Texas portion.
Although there is no evidence that expedition members went ashore in Texas, it is possible that needs for water, fuel, and fresh food may have taken small parties ashore. Map of Francisco Coronado's Expedition, Courtesy of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Map of Hernando De Soto's Expedition, Courtesy of Charles Hudson.
Cabeza de Vaca was not an explorer in the traditional or scientific sense.The main reasons for England's exploration, and colonization of the 13 Colonies can be summarized as follows: A.
The British empire believed that it could strengthen its powe r in the world by.
From to the s, Spanish explorers were the bullies of the New World. Beginning with Columbus in and continuing for nearly years, Spain conquered and settled most of South America, the Caribbean, and the American Southwest. Early explorations, followed by settlements, colonization, and the establishment of trade relationships, had many causes.
As the rivalry between European nations grew, these causes were. With the gradual Spanish settlement and colonization in New Mexico, a second wave of missionary scouts soon continued the exploration of West Texas.
In particular the Jumanos of the South Plains evinced great energy in attracting missionary attention to their rancherías.
Â Â Â Â Â Â During the colonial period, thousands of people came to America, and many different reasons brought them here. Â Â Â Â Â Â Some of the settlers came to find work.
In early America, most of the people were farmers, and anyone could come to America and work on the land. The Role of Disease in European Exploration and Colonization - The Role of Disease in European Exploration and Colonization Human mobility, in terms of European transcontinental exploration and colonization, began to truly flourish after the s.