Introduction Case study research has grown in reputation as an effective methodology to investigate and understand complex issues in real world settings.
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research by Nedra Kline Weinreich Introduction Traditionally, research in the field of health promotion has followed in the footsteps of its "older brother," medicine. However, the reductionistic model of disease causation cannot adequately describe the complex mechanisms that influence health behavior.
Social marketers working to promote health have learned that rigorous quantitative research surveys do not necessarily provide all of the data needed to develop effective communications. Consequently, qualitative methods such as focus groups and in-depth interviews, as well as less precise but useful semi-quantitative approaches, such as intercept surveys, have emerged as part of their research repertoire.
In an ideal social marketing program, researchers use both Qualitative research case study and qualitative data to provide a more complete picture of the issue being addressed, the target audience and the effectiveness of the program itself.
The purpose of this paper is to look at how these two different research approaches can be integrated to inform the development of an effective social marketing program. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: A Comparison An examination of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms will help to identify their strengths and weaknesses and how their divergent approaches can complement each other.
In most cases, researchers fall into one of the two camps--either relying exclusively upon "objective" survey questionnaires and statistical analyses and eschewing warm and fuzzy qualitative methods, or using only qualitative methodologies, rejecting the quantitative approach as decontextualizing human behavior.
However, social marketing researchers recognize that each approach has positive attributes, and that combining different methods can result in gaining the best of both research worlds. Quantitative research uses methods adopted from the physical sciences that are designed to ensure objectivity, generalizability and reliability.
These techniques cover the ways research participants are selected randomly from the study population in an unbiased manner, the standardized questionnaire or intervention they receive and the statistical methods used to test predetermined hypotheses regarding the relationships between specific variables.
The researcher is considered external to the actual research, and results are expected to be replicable no matter who conducts the research.
The strengths of the quantitative paradigm are that its methods produce quantifiable, reliable data that are usually generalizable to some larger population. Quantitative measures are often most appropriate for conducting needs assessments or for evaluations comparing outcomes with baseline data.
This paradigm breaks down when the phenomenon under study is difficult to measure or quantify. The greatest weakness of the quantitative approach is that it decontextualizes human behavior in a way that removes the event from its real world setting and ignores the effects of variables that have not been included in the model.
Qualitative research methodologies are designed to provide the researcher with the perspective of target audience members through immersion in a culture or situation and direct interaction with the people under study. Qualitative methods used in social marketing include observations, in-depth interviews and focus groups.
These methods are designed to help researchers understand the meanings people assign to social phenomena and to elucidate the mental processes underlying behaviors.
Hypotheses are generated during data collection and analysis, and measurement tends to be subjective. In the qualitative paradigm, the researcher becomes the instrument of data collection, and results may vary greatly depending upon who conducts the research. The advantage of using qualitative methods is that they generate rich, detailed data that leave the participants' perspectives intact and provide a context for health behavior.
The focus upon processes and "reasons why" differs from that of quantitative research, which addresses correlations between variables. A disadvantage is that data collection and analysis may be labor intensive and time-consuming. In addition, these methods are not yet totally accepted by the mainstream public health community and qualitative researchers may find their results challenged as invalid by those outside the field of social marketing.Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods [Robert K.
Yin] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Recognized as one of the most cited methodology books in the social sciences. The case study as a type of qualitative research 29 Introduction Case studies were one of the first types of research to be used in the field of qualitative 1methodology.
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1; Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations. This book presents a disciplined, qualitative exploration of case study methods by drawing from naturalistic, holistic, ethnographic, phenomenological and biographic research methods.
The case study as a type of qualitative research 29 Introduction Case studies were one of the first types of research to be used in the field of qualitative 1methodology. The case study research design have evolved over the past few years as a useful tool for investigating trends and specific situations in many scientific disciplines.