This sample history essay explores the Magna Carta, its context, and its legacy in greater depth.
Welfare State Essay Welfare State Essay The term welfare state is strongly associated with socioeconomic policies adopted in advanced capitalist economies particularly afterwhich rested on the conviction that societies can be shaped by conscious policies designed by state institutions to eliminate abuses resulting from the market process within a capitalist economy.
Nevertheless, both the idea and various welfare practices existed before the postwar period. The oldest of these traces back to social insurance programs in Germany in the s.
While the French government set up similar pension plans inthe British government introduced a national insurance system, old-age pensions, and health and compulsory unemployment insurance systems inIdeological support for state independence essay the Swedes initiated the first compulsory and universal pension system in The only national program in the United States was the old-age insurance program initiated by the Social Security Act inleaving implementation of other welfare plans to individual states.
However, these early programs were limited in scope, and after World War II the government transformed them into more comprehensive programs of universal benefits. A growing literature examines why welfare states expanded afterand the most comprehensive variations of these studies begin with a theory of advanced capitalism.
Prior to this period, the leading capitalist countries experienced high unemployment levels, severe inflation rates, government deficits, productivity declines, and increasing inequality. Although various combinations of public and private solutions attempted to prevent social unrest, broader developments irrevocably altered the economic, political, and social environment after World War II.
Therefore, these countries reconsidered their idolization of the market and put greater emphasis on state intervention in the economy. On the one hand, the welfare state was to ensure the reproduction of all conditions of production.
State regulation, then, emerged as an essential basis of economic process as well as the precondition for the maintenance of an adequate labor force for new patterns of production. On the other hand, the idea behind the welfare state depended heavily on a compromise between social actors in the face of a powerful material and ideological competitor, socialism, which threatened the very existence of the capitalist system.
Labor unions were recognized as the legitimate economic and political representatives of working class both in collective bargaining process and public policy formulation.
Within this context, ideas of John Maynard Keynes provided the ideological justification and theoretical basis of welfare states at a time when the Great Depression still had its hold on industrialized economies, and neoclassical economics offered no clear solutions.
Keynes argued that public expenditures could maintain a certain demand level without affecting profits and smooth out the fluctuations of the market.
Moreover, he claimed that monetary expansion, by controlling the level of interest rates, would result in investments that would create new jobs. With the widespread acceptance of Keynesian assumptions aftergovernment fiscal and monetary policies ensured an environment for a nonhostile labor force and favored the growth of mass markets and standardized patterns of consumption.
Welfare expenditures in Western democracies included various practices such as labor protection legislation, minimum wages, unemploymentbenefits, and other comprehensive compulsory insurance programs.
The growth of the welfare state also contributed to increases in other public expenditures such as education, health, state-subsidized housing, and so on.
The public sector undertook necessary infrastructure investments; that is, railways, telecommunications, water, coal, gas, and electricity supply.
Although most modern industrial societies instituted at least some of these measures, countries developed their own national versions. This led analysts to distinguish these variations.
The main criteria behind these different welfare regimes were their degree of de-commodification; that is, the relative independence of the system from the compulsion and risks of the market. These differences emerged from the nature of class mobilization, class-political coalition structures, and regime institutionalization in each country and decisively affected the articulation of political demands, class cohesion, and the scope for labor-party action.
However, after the s, the world economy experienced serious challenges: Productivity slowed down, inflation rates rose, the international monetary system broke down, competition among national economies increased, and foreign debt ratios exploded. Although debate continues, some experts called the welfare state a major drain on economic growth and competitiveness.
Critics contended that the high involvement of government with welfare expenditures was a misallocation of resources that might otherwise have gone into more productive investments.
These arguments found their intellectual culmination in neoliberal and monetarist doctrines and their political support from New Right governments, such as those of Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States.
Since then, governments in many countries have implemented significant reductions in welfare state expenditures. Nevertheless, their pace and degree depend heavily upon which of the three welfare regimes existed in the previous period.
Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. The Foundations of the Welfare State. If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.Kennedy was clearly expected to be firmly entrenched among the liberals of the Democratic Party, even though the requirement of some conservative support was evident to “get along.” However, his position on most .
This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the .
Cold War History Essay Writing Tips Wrting an essay about the Cold War has its own set of unique challenges, beyond those associated with writing a history essay on any topic. There are pitfalls to avoid, as well as things that you should take into account.
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays [Louis Althusser] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. No figure among the western Marxist theoreticians has loomed larger in the postwar period than Louis Althusser.
A rebel against the Catholic tradition in which he was raised. Iskander Mirza declared martial law on 7 October , Ayub Khan was made its chief martial law administrator. After the collapse of the Cabinet of Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Feroz Khan Noon formed the Cabinet with the support of Republican Party (Pakistan), Awami League and Krishak Sramik League.
There was a pretty massive shift in the s and s when northern Democrats starting supporting the civil rights movement (among other things).