How esters are formed

It starts by looking at the hydrolysis of simple esters like ethyl ethanoate, and goes on to look at hydrolysing bigger, more complicated ones to make soap. Hydrolysing simple esters What is hydrolysis?

How esters are formed

Esterification - alcohols and carboxylic acids

The functional group of a carboxylic ester is an acyl group bonded to OR or OAr, where R represents an alkyl group and Ar represents an aryl group. The reverse of the esterification reaction is an example of hydrolysis. Esters may also be obtained by reaction of acid halides or acid anhydrides with alcohols or by reaction of salts of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

One ester may be converted to another ester by reaction transesterified with an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, or a third ester in the presence of a catalyst.

The hydrolysis of esters in the presence of alkalies, a reaction called saponificationis utilized in the preparation of soaps from fats and oils and is also used for the quantitative estimation of esters.

Classification of lipids

Carboxylic acid esters of low molecular weight are colourless, volatile liquids with pleasant odours, slightly soluble in water. Many are responsible for the fragrance and flavour of flowers and fruits; for example, isopentyl acetate is present in bananasmethyl salicylate in wintergreenand ethyl butyrate in pineapples.

These and other volatile esters with characteristic odours are used in synthetic flavours, perfumes, and cosmetics. Certain volatile esters are used as solvents for lacquers, paints, and varnishes; for this purpose, large quantities of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate are commercially produced.

Waxes secreted by animals and plants are esters formed from long-chain carboxylic acids and long-chain alcohols. Fats and oils are esters of long-chain carboxylic acids and glycerol. Liquid esters of low volatility serve as softening agents for resins and plastics.

Esters also include many industrially important polymers. Polymethyl methacrylate is a glass substitute sold under the names Lucite and Plexiglas; polyethylene terephthalate is used as a film Mylar and as textile fibres sold as Terylene, Fortrel, and Dacron. Esters are also formed from alcohols and such inorganic acids as sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids.

Phosphate esters are biologically important nucleic acids belong to this group and are used widely in industry as solvents, plasticizers, flame retardants, gasoline and oil additives, and insecticides.

Esters of sulfuric and sulfurous acids are used in the manufacture of dyes and pharmaceuticals.

How esters are formed

Dimethyl sulfatethe best-known ester of sulfuric acid, is a dangerous poison. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:How esters are formed? What is an ester in chemistry? Esters Esters are non-hydrocarbon organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

How esters are formed

The smallest member of the ester family is shown in Photograph. In fact, an ester is the product of an esterification reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. A molecule of water [ ].

Ester | chemical compound |

UK Hs Tariff Code of Chapter Acyclic hydrocarbons and Cyclic hydrocarbons in Halogenated derivatives like Sulphonated, Nitrated, Cyclic alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, peroxides, ketone, Epoxides, epoxyalcohols, epoxyphenols, epoxyethers, Glycosides sugar and Antibiotics organic compounds.

Dear Asad, it’s not true that lipids are insoluble in water.


Their solubility in aqueous systems depends on their polarity: some lipids, like sterol esters and many triglycerides, are hydrophobic molecules, others, like phospholipids and very short-chain fatty acids, are more water soluble or completely miscible with water and, conversely, insoluble in non polar solvents.

This page looks at esterification - mainly the reaction between alcohols and carboxylic acids to make esters.

It also looks briefly at making esters from the reactions between acyl chlorides (acid chlorides) and alcohols, and between acid anhydrides and alcohols. Hydrolysis using dilute alkali.

This is the usual way of hydrolysing esters. The ester is heated under reflux with a dilute alkali like sodium hydroxide solution.

Key Concepts

Cholesteryl ester, a dietary lipid, is an ester of cholesterol. The ester bond is formed between the carboxylate group of a fatty acid and the hydroxyl group of cholesterol.

Cholesteryl esters have a lower solubility in water due to their increased hydrophobicity.

Indian Customs Bhd Malaysia is the world's leading oleochemical producer and exporter, capitalising on its competitiveness, innovation and productivity in palm oil-based products. It was with the intention of capitalizing on the opportunities and resources in the oleochemical industry available in Malaysia that Greenwell Oleochemicals Sdn.
Ester - Wikipedia Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called " trivial names " e.
Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism Animal waxes Bee wax This wax is an abdominal secretion of bees Apis melliferaits colour being dependent of the flowers gathered by these insects.
Esters and Esterification Chemistry Tutorial Take the exam now!
Wax ester - Wikipedia