The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury websitewith full descriptions, photographs and prices. Early Issue Made by Hudson and Co. And with rare exceptions, 19th century stamps bearing a specific Police Force name are either made by Hudson or Dowler.
Atheism in Hinduism In the East, a contemplative life not centered on the idea of deities began in the sixth century BCE with the rise of JainismBuddhismand various sects of Hinduism in India, and of Taoism in China. These religions offered a philosophic and salvific path not involving deity worship.
Deities are not seen as necessary to the salvific goal of the early Buddhist tradition, their reality is explicitly questioned and often rejected.
There is a fundamental incompatibility between the notion of gods and basic Buddhist principles, at least in some interpretations. The principal text of the Samkhya school, the Samkhya Karikawas written by Ishvara Krishna in the fourth century CE, by which time it was already a dominant Hindu school.
The origins of the school are much older and are lost in legend. The school was both dualistic and atheistic. They believed in a dual existence of Prakriti "nature" and Purusha "spirit" and had no place for an Ishvara "God" in its system, arguing that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist.
The school dominated Hindu philosophy in its day, but declined after the tenth century, although commentaries were still being written as late as the sixteenth century. The school reached its height c. The Mimamsa school saw their primary enquiry was into the nature of dharma based on close interpretation of the Vedas.
Its core tenets were ritualism orthopraxyantiasceticism and antimysticism. The early Mimamsakas believed in an adrishta "unseen" that is the result of performing karmas "works" and saw no need for an Ishvara "God" in their system.
Mimamsa persists in some subschools of Hinduism today. The school grew out of the generic skepticism in the Mauryan period. Already in the sixth century BCE, Ajita Kesakambalinwas quoted in Pali scriptures by the Buddhists with whom he was debating, teaching that "with the break-up of the body, the wise and the foolish alike are annihilated, destroyed.
They do not exist after death. The Tattvopaplavasimha of Jayarashi Bhatta c. The school appears to have died out sometime around the fifteenth century. God in Buddhism and Buddhist cosmology The nonadherence  to the notion of a supreme deity or a prime mover is seen by many as a key distinction between Buddhism and other religions.
While Buddhist traditions do not deny the existence of supernatural beings many are discussed in Buddhist scriptureit does not ascribe powers, in the typical Western sense, for creation, salvation or judgement, to the "gods", however, praying to enlightened deities is sometimes seen as leading to some degree of spiritual merit.
Buddhists accept the existence of beings in higher realms, known as devasbut they, like humans, are said to be suffering in samsara and not particularly wiser than we are. In fact the Buddha is often portrayed as a teacher of the deities,  and superior to them.
Jainism and non-creationism Jains see their tradition as eternal. Organized Jainism can be dated back to Parshva who lived in the ninth century BCE, and, more reliably, to Mahaviraa teacher of the sixth century BCE, and a contemporary of the Buddha.
Jainism is a dualistic religion with the universe made up of matter and souls. The universe, and the matter and souls within it, is eternal and uncreated, and there is no omnipotent creator deity in Jainism.
There are, however, "gods" and other spirits who exist within the universe and Jains believe that the soul can attain "godhood"; however, none of these supernatural beings exercise any sort of creative activity or have the capacity or ability to intervene in answers to prayers.
Classical Greece and Rome[ edit ] Socrates In Western classical Antiquitytheism was the fundamental belief that supported the legitimacy of the state the polislater the Roman Empire. Historically, any person who did not believe in any deity supported by the state was fair game to accusations of atheism, a capital crime.
For political reasons, Socrates in Athens BCE was accused of being atheos "refusing to acknowledge the gods recognized by the state". The first Hellenic philosophers were not atheists, but they attempted to explain the world in terms of the processes of nature instead of by mythological accounts.
Thus lightning was the result of "wind breaking out and parting the clouds",  and earthquakes occurred when "the earth is considerably altered by heating and cooling".The Causes and Effects of the Peloponnesian War - The Peloponnesian War was between the Greek cities of Athens and Sparta due to the growing tensions that continued to grow between the two cities that eventually came to a breaking point.
Is this worth reading - is it True? On the matter of credibility: On first reading, readers of these pages generally feel amazement, the concept of Blacks being the original settlers, and builders of the first civilizations everywhere, including Europe, is particularly unsettling to them.
Aug 21, · Watch video · The story of the Trojan War—the Bronze Age conflict between the kingdoms of Troy and Mycenaean Greece–straddles the history and mythology of ancient Greece and inspired the greatest writers of. Fukuoka | Japan Fukuoka | Japan.
16th Century Indian Firangi Sword Circa 's Basket Hilt Form The name ‘Firangi’ (Foreigner) was apparently given to these swords somewhat later in the 17th Century, as they were mounted with European (Foreign) blades, imported by the Portugese, which were highly valued.
Peloponnesian War Essay The Peloponnesian War was a Greek conflict fought by the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, and the Athenian Empire. The war lasted 27 years, from to b.c.e., with a six-year truce in the middle, and ended with an Athenian surrender.