United States History I. Introduction United States History, story of how the republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times. As the nation developed, it expanded westward from small settlements along the Atlantic Coast, eventually including all the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans across the middle of the North American continent, as well as two noncontiguous states and a number of territories.
For over half a century the question of guilt in the Cold War has been debated; whether it was the west, with their lofty ideals and unclear aims, or the east, with their vast post-war expansions and unquestionable tyranny.
This paper will point a literary finger at one side and defend that stance. The simple tendency for American political flaws to be paraded in public by the media, as opposed to the Soviet secrecy fetish, led to a revisionist view of the Cold War where the blame was almost entirely placed on the West.
During the time of McCarthyism, two schools of revisionists, hard and soft, both felt this way, though with different specifics to their cases.
Those of the hard revisionist camp believed that the Cold War was little more than a ploy by American industry, in conjunction with the military, to force the opening of eastern markets to the west. Those in the softer camp felt that the Cold War was the responsibility of Harry Truman and his administration for abandoning the cooperative framework established by Roosevelt and for using the atomic bomb as a scare tactic in negotiations with the Soviet Union.
Upon close inspection, it is evident that these revisionist claims are based not on evidence of action or intent but on beliefs of motivation, both on the side of the United States and Russia. These new thinkers felt that Stalin was little more than a traditional Soviet leader attempting to protect Soviet interests.
These claims are easily debunked. Historical studies have found little or no evidence in support of these claims. It is unarguable that western society has been opposed to Communism since at leastbut the assertion that the Cold War was little more than a ploy to gain access to eastern markets is unfounded, as there is no proof to support such claims and the markets of the poor east would hold little, if any, impact on the western economy.
The counter to this argument is that the motives of the westerners were so ingrained that they were never committed to paper. This attempt at proof without evidence is little more than a poor joke. As for the profession that the blame lies on the Truman administration, and that the atomic bomb was a negotiating tool aimed at Russia, not Japan, all evidence indicates that the decision to use the bomb was based purely on military concerns and no administration, since the founding of the United States, has existed without flaw.
However, no flaw in the Truman administration was great enough to warrant the tremendous burden the revisionists believe it deserves. While this new school of thought successfully confirmed the previous belief that that the blame is to be shared, they did not effectively show that the majority of it belonged to the west.
These traditional thinkers will cite, as did Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. InStalin began a new domestic policy of terror. It was widely hinted that Stalin himself had arranged the assassination, even by the likes of Khrushchev. Several head military leaders were reported as court-martialed and executed at the time as well.
Add to this tally the civilian casualties and the deaths are most efficiently measured in tens of millions. In this manner, Stalin tamed the unruly Communist Party in Russia as well as the surviving elite class of Russians. This reign of terror persisted until Stalin himself gave the order to reduce it.
If this is not justification for fear and misunderstanding on the part of the westerners, there is no feasible justification. At this point, Stalin had reached the pinnacle of a historic, quarter century reign during which many say he possessed more unquestioned power than any leader before or since.
He began a policy of claiming bordering free states as Soviet protectorates. The only disruption to this policy was the defection of Titoist Yugoslavia.The Blog of Scott Aaronson If you take just one piece of information from this blog: Quantum computers would not solve hard search problems instantaneously by simply trying all the possible solutions at once.
The Cold War Essay. The topic of the Cold War parallels with one ideal, the ideal of Communism. The threat of Communism in our country and our allies dominated the United States’ mindset throughout the mid to late 20th century.
Chronology Office of the Historian Washington, DC United States Relations with Russia: The Cold War. Creation of Eastern European People's Republics. In , Raoul Wallenberg maintained a temporary office address at Blasieholmsgatan 3, in the heart of the Wallenberg family business sphere.
The new information suggests that his contact with his famous relatives was closer than previously thought. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples.
The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in , beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium.