Such agreements set the stage for the justification of mass removal. The cost of the emigration of all such shall also be borne by the United States, and good and suitable ways opened, and provisions procured for their comfort, accommodation, and support, by the way, and provisions for twelve months after their arrival The Georgia legislature annulled the Cherokee constitution and ordered seizure of their lands.
Visit Website Did you know? Indian removal took place in the Northern states as well. In Illinois and Wisconsin, for example, the bloody Black Hawk War in opened to white settlement millions of acres of land that had belonged to the Sauk, Fox and other native nations.
But their land, located in parts of GeorgiaAlabamaNorth CarolinaFlorida and Tennesseewas valuable, and it grew to be more coveted as white settlers flooded the region.
They wanted that land and they would do almost anything to get it. They stole livestock; burned and looted houses and towns; committed mass murder ; and squatted on land that did not belong to them. Several states passed laws limiting Native American sovereignty and rights and encroaching on their territory.
In a few cases, such as Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgiathe U. As president, he continued this crusade. The law required the government to negotiate removal treaties fairly, voluntarily and peacefully: It did not permit the president or anyone else to coerce Native nations into giving up their land.
However, President Jackson and his government frequently ignored the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to vacate lands they had lived on for generations. In the winter ofunder threat of invasion by the U. Army, the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from its land altogether.
Thousands of people died along the way.
Inthe federal government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time: The Cherokee people were divided: Some wanted to stay and fight.
Others thought it was more pragmatic to agree to leave in exchange for money and other concessions. To the federal government, the treaty was a done deal, but many of the Cherokee felt betrayed; fter all, the negotiators did not represent the tribal government or anyone else.
Senate protesting the treaty.
Byonly about 2, Cherokees had left their Georgia homeland for Indian territory. Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while whites looted their homes and belongings.
Then, they marched the Indians more than 1, miles to Indian territory. Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5, Cherokee died as a result of the journey.
Bytens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory. InOklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good.
Start your free trial today.The Indian Removal Act of authorized Pres. Andrew Jackson to accelerate the westward movement of Europeans by relocating Indian tribes to unsettled land west of the Mississippi River. While the act had explicitly provided for the purchase of land from willing parties, the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole had little desire.
Unlike the "Trail of Tears" that took place in a single, dreadful moment, in , in which several thousand Cherokee people were sent on a death march to the West, the removals of the Seminole people from Florida began earlier and lasted 20 years longer.
Following the election of Andrew Jackson in , long-held desires for the lands of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw and Seminole Indians came to fruition with the federal Indian Removal Act .
They were moved towards the west along the Trail of Tears. Of the 11, Cherokees moved in , about 4, died along the way. The five major tribes affected by the Indian Removal Act were the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. The Indian Removal Act of was designed to remove all Indians east of the Mississippi River out west into what is now known as Oklahoma.
There are several reasons why Indian removal occurred. Most importantly, expanding white settlements were inevitable as the population grew. In the modern era, it's become increasingly common for presidents to send troops into battle without authorization from Congress -- a practice many argue is.