History[ edit ] The use of drugs in sports goes back centuries, about all the way back to the very invention of the concept of sports.
She has co-authored a National Cancer Institute report and a number of research articles that have appeared in medical journals. Tricia holds a Master of Arts in clinical psychology from Stony Brook University and boasts diverse clinical, research and teaching experience.
Effects of Performance Enhancing Drugs People usually use performance-enhancing drugs to boost athletic performance. While drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormones, stimulants and diuretics may help certain people attain short-term physical goals related to muscle building, speed, strength or weight management, these drugs may also have serious side effects.
Liver problems, cardiovascular effects, emotional instability and severe dehydration are several well-known effects of some performance-enhancing drugs.
Video of the Day Anabolic and Growth Effects Certain performance-enhancing drugs have anabolic effects, meaning they promote the building of muscle.
Synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids such as oxandrolone and methyltestosterone are known to promote the growth of skeletal muscle, according to the Mayo Clinic. Although they promote muscle growth, they can stunt overall growth and development, particularly when used by adolescents and teenagers.
Undesirable Gender Effects Certain performance-enhancing drugs can cause undesirable physical changes to both men and women. According to the Mayo Clinic, anabolic-androgenic steroids can cause men to develop shrunken testicles, prominent breasts, reduced sperm count or infertility and baldness, while women may develop an unusually deep voice, excess body hair, an enlarged clitoris, irregularities in their menstrual cycle and baldness.
Dehydration According to the Mayo Clinic, diuretics such as furosemide and spironolactone are sometimes used to cause a significant amount of weight loss in a very short period of time or to mask the use of other drugs. Because they flush excess fluid from the body, however, they can also cause severe dehydration.
Dehydration can cause a number of other potentially dangerous side effects, including electrolyte imbalances such as potassium deficiency, muscle cramps, dizziness, extremely low blood pressure, exhaustion and heart problems. If left untreated, these conditions can be fatal.
Cardiovascular Effects According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, oral and injectable anabolic steroid abuse is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke.
The use of growth hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin and corticotrophin can cause diabetes, which also increases the risk of cardiovascular problems. The use of diuretics can also cause heart arrhythmias.
Emotional Effects Anabolic-androgenic steroids can cause severe rage, aggressive outbursts or violence.
They may also induce the onset of psychiatric disorders such as depression. According to the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, research has shown that steroids can also cause delusions such as beliefs of invincibility, paranoid jealousy, excessive irritability and moodiness and impaired judgment.
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, narcotics or painkillers are sometimes used to produce feelings of euphoria and invincibility. Additionally, while stimulants such as ephedrine and amphetamines can increase alertness and reduce feelings of fatigue, they are also known to cause poor judgment and increased hostility.
Effects on the Liver Anabolic-androgenic steroid use can cause severe damage to the liver. According to the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, steroid use can increase the risk for developing liver tumors.
Jaundice can be caused by hepatitis--a disease of the liver that may be contracted from others through anabolic steroid injections or may be a side effect of large amounts of the drugs themselves, according to the Mayo Clinic.
These liver conditions can cause fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and may lead to liver failure if the drugs are not stopped before they lead severe, irreversible damage. High doses of the supplement creatine can also cause liver and kidney damage, according to the Mayo Clinic.The reasons for the ban are mainly the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, and the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public.
Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport". Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
A well-known example involves doping in sport, where banned physical performance–enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders.
Performance-enhancing drugs go by many names Refining your care of patients who are taking performance-enhancing drugs requires that you know the various names these drugs go by, the reason your patients may be taking them, and the adverse effects associated with them. With all the information, attention, and debate over performance-enhancing drugs (or PEDs), many people want to further understand how performance-enhancing drugs affect one’s body.
It’s an important area of concern for athletes and at the foundation of why USADA and . Performance enhancing drugs can be regarded in four classes: androstenedione, creatine, anabolic steroids, and ephedra alkaloids.
All of these drugs are available over the counter with the exception of the anabolic steroid class. Dec 17, · Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs.