Psychoanalyse first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s. Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject. Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms.
Click here for more information on defense mechanisms. In many cases, the result was some form of neurotic illness. Freud sought to understand the nature and variety of these illnesses by retracing the sexual history of his patients.
This was not primarily an investigation of sexual experiences as such. Freud believed that children are born with a libido — a sexual pleasure urge. This particular theory shows how adult personality is determined by childhood experiences.
Dream Analysis Dream Analysis Freud considered dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious as it is in dreams that the ego's defenses are lowered so that some of the repressed material comes through to awareness, albeit in distorted form. Dreams perform important functions for the unconscious mind and serve as valuable clues to how the unconscious mind operates.
On 24 JulyFreud had his own dream that was to form the basis of his theory.
He had been worried about a patient, Irma, who was not doing as well in treatment as he had hoped. Freud, in fact, blamed himself for this, and was feeling guilty.
Freud dreamed that he met An analysis freuds theory at a party and examined her. He then saw a chemical formula for a drug that another doctor had given Irma flash before his eyes and realized that her condition was caused by a dirty syringe used by the other doctor.
Freud's guilt was thus relieved. Freud interpreted this dream as wish-fulfillment. He had wished that Irma's poor condition was not his fault and the dream had fulfilled this wish by informing him that another doctor was at fault.
Based on this dream, Freud went on to propose that a major function of dreams was the fulfillment of wishes. Freud distinguished between the manifest content of a dream what the dreamer remembers and the latent content, the symbolic meaning of the dream i. The manifest content is often based on the events of the day.
The process whereby the underlying wish is translated into the manifest content is called dreamwork.
The purpose of dreamwork is to transform the forbidden wish into a non-threatening form, thus reducing anxiety and allowing us to continue sleeping.
Dreamwork involves the process of condensation, displacement, and secondary elaboration. For example, a dream about a man may be a dream about both one's father and one's lover.
A dream about a house might be the condensation of worries about security as well as worries about one's appearance to the rest of the world. Displacement takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else.
Freud interpreted this as representing his wish to kill his sister-in-law. If the patient would have really dreamed of killing his sister-in-law, he would have felt guilty. The unconscious mind transformed her into a dog to protect him. Secondary elaboration occurs when the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content.
According to Freud, this is why the manifest content of dreams can be in the form of believable events.
Some of these were sexual in nature, including poles, guns, and swords representing the penis and horse riding and dancing representing sexual intercourse. However, Freud was cautious about symbols and stated that general symbols are more personal rather than universal. In an amusing example of the limitations of universal symbols, one of Freud's patients, after dreaming about holding a wriggling fish, said to him 'that's a Freudian symbol - it must be a penis!
It seems more plausible, as Freud suggested, that the fish represented the patient's mother rather than a penis! Freud's Followers Freud's Followers Freud attracted many followers, who formed a famous group in called the "Psychological Wednesday Society.
At the beginning ofthe committee had 22 members and renamed themselves the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Freud's theory is good at explaining but not at predicting behavior which is one of the goals of science. For this reason, Freud's theory is unfalsifiable - it can neither be proved true or refuted.
For example, the unconscious mind is difficult to test and measure objectively.
Overall, Freud's theory is highly unscientific. Such empirical findings have demonstrated the role of unconscious processes in human behavior. However, most of the evidence for Freud's theories are taken from an unrepresentative sample.
He mostly studied himself, his patients and only one child e. The main problem here is that the case studies are based on studying one person in detail, and with reference to Freud, the individuals in question are most often middle-aged women from Vienna i.
This makes generalizations to the wider population e.Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect.
Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. Keywords: case study analysis psychology, behaviourism vs freud The study analysed George a 35year old high school teacher who has recently been hospitalised due to the presentation of certain psychological symptoms.
Sigmund Freud. Considered the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud () revolutionizes the study of dreams with his work The Interpretation Of Dreams. Freud begins to analyze dreams in order to understand . Critique Freud - Strengths and Weaknesses. The study of the human mind will always have its complexities and its doubts on certain subjects.
Like all psychoanalytical theories, it is impossible to prove beyond a doubt, and much easier to uncover its strengths rather than its weaknesses. Fre. The basis of Freud’s theory was the conscious mind, the preconscious mind, and the unconscious mind. His study had much to do with many aspects of the conscious and unconscious states; however, the major divisions included the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious.
Topographic theory was named and first described by Sigmund Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams (). The theory hypothesizes that the mental apparatus can be divided into the systems Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious.